Articolele abordează subiecte din domeniul arheologiei, istoriei și muzeologiei și se referă îndeosebi la regiunea Banatului istoric, iar unele abordează istoria României și istoria universală.
1 Ianuarie 2013
e subject of our present paper fits in the topic of medieval royal seats, which have always been considered a
priority of historical and archaeological research. Our purpose was to synthesise all documentary data about the
royal residence of the Anjou period from Timişoara, corroborating them with the results of older and the newest
archaeological investigations. e latter ones, carried out during the last six years, have a great importance, for
many of the so far formulated ideas and theories proved to be wrong. One of the first historical corrections to
be made is related to the date of the first visit in Timişoara of King Charles I of Anjou. According to the latest
research, the charter which stood at the base of this affirmation, initially dated to 1307, was in fact issued a decade
later. In consequence we do not have any proof of the royal presence in the region prior to 1315, when the first
charters are issued by the same king from Timişoara.
Despite all documentary evidence related to the presence and functioning of the royal court here, information is
extremely scarce regarding the residence itself: construction, architectural aspect etc. Following older monographs,
the idea took hold that the king disposed the construction of a elaborate stone castle, mainly carried out by
Italian masons who followed the king to the Realm of Hungary. Archaeological excavations revealed that this
theory couldn’t be further from truth. All constructions dated to this first functional period of the castle, known
today as Huniade Castle, were erected exclusively of brick and wood. Stone is comparatively rare and is limited
to the foundations of some of the buildings. Even decorative elements, such as door frames, were carried out of
profiled bricks. e core of the residence is represented by a quadrate shaped tower. Initially it was surrounded by
a wooden palisade doubled with a ditch, enclosing a much smaller area compared to the later periods. It is highly
possible, though not proven yet, that the brick tower was preceded by a wooden stronghold constructed prior to
the 14th century. Later on a defence wall made of brick was constructed around the keep and the residence has
been extended also with a palace.
Archaeological evidence shows that, contrary to all expectations, the royal residence from Timişoara had rather
modest and practical architectural features. is can be partly explained with the geomorphologic configuration
of the terrain, consisting of smaller and larger dry lands surrounded by watercourses and swamp. e lack of
stone quarries in the proximity is another aspect to be taken into consideration, which along with the temporary
character of the seat would have made greater construction and financial efforts rather worthless. If we compare
the residence from Timişoara with the one from Visegrád, constructed by King Charles I after 1323, we can easily
observe the similarities and the same modesty of the architecture.