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Periferiile orasului Timisoarei in anul 1933 The / Peripheries of Timisoara in 1933

Jan. 1, 2013

social situation
situaţie urbanistică
periferii Timişoara



e census accomplished at the end of the year 1933 for Timișoara’s outskirts proves the concern of the city authorities for the situation of the local inhabitants of these areas with the intent to enact an urban renewal scheme. e results of the census showed that the outskirts of the city underwent a broader development starting with the year 1924, a process that continued at the beginning of the fourth decade of the 20th century, especially at the peripheries from the 2nd and the 3rd districts of the city. As for the home owners in the north periphery, the workers prevailed, in the 3rd district the craftsmen, the clerk’s district being at the periphery of Timișoara’s 2nd district. e city was mostly constructed of brick houses, a fact that proves the welfare of the owners, however there were also mud houses. e houses consisted primarily of one apartment and usually had a kitchen (13% were without), a room and a water closet. A significant number of the apartments lacked water closets (a number of 258, or 16%) and storerooms (a number of 680). Only a few apartments had bathrooms. Hygiene problems were mostly at the east periphery of the city. All these data underline the apartments from the outskirts lacked comfort (65% were one room apartments) and more or less had only a minimum of civilized conditions (5% were without bathroom, etc.). Most apartments were in good shape (76%), the worst situation being in the north and the east parts of the city and the best conditions in the south part of the city. From the outskirts apartments 3% were uninhabited, mostly in the north part of the city, this being a normal situation according to the real estate market from those years. e real estate market of the outskirts’ apartments was mirrored by the number of the hired apartments which rose at 24%. e results of the census underline another important aspect, namely the fact that during the economic crisis, a great enough number of houses were built on the periphery, suggesting that not all the inhabitants of the city were struck by the effects of the global economic crisis. Most of the houses were inhabited by one single family (94%), as for the number of the persons, in quite equal percents (25%) were inhabited by two, respectively three and four persons, the most populated having twelve inhabitants. e north periphery of the city was the most densely populated. As for the area of the rooms, the most unacceptable ratios were located at the east periphery of the city. ese census data show that 33% of the married men were between 30 and 40 years old, being craftsmen, workers and clerks, the percentage being the same for the married women, who were mostly housewives (88%). e children living in the outskirts of Timişoara were mostly males. Another aim of the census was the analysis of the situation of those who moved at the outskirts. A representative sample shows that in 65% of the cases the intention was to get a home for the family, which proves a satisfactory economic situation of those who moved. Most of the people who moved to the outskirts of the city lived in apartments composed of a room and a kitchen. At the same time, most of the reviewed families improved their financial situation after moving. At a time when the world hasn’t passed the economic crisis, the number of the unemployed at the peripheries of Timişoara was significantly reduced (n=148). Most of them were homeowners and came from the north periphery of the city. e year 1933 was selected as the year in which most became unemployed. e occupational categories affected by the economic crisis were the craftsmen and the workers but some of them succeeded to find jobs. Surprising is the fact that a great deal of the homeowners that became unemployed depended on their wives’ earnings. Most of the outskirts’ inhabitants worked eight hours per day, but some also reported 10 hours – 10%, and twelve hours – 6%. e health status of the population was satisfactory at the peripheries of Timişoara, the exception being the south periphery of the city. For mortality, the results of the census were approximate with tuberculosis causing most of the lethal cases.It is also important to note that the peripheries of the city lacked sidewalks in front of most of the houses, and the existing ones were in a poor condition. Cleanliness of the outskirts was a serious problem, only in 1,2% of the cases interceding the Municipal Sanitation Service. e worst situation was in the north part of the city. e private property of those who lived at the peripheries consisted of gardens, yards and arable lands. Agricultural products from the gardens completed the necessities of the owners, just a small part being turned to profit on the markets of the city (3% of the cases). e presence of land cultivation and breeding makes us assess that the situation of the inhabitants was somewhere between town and village. e census also recorded the desires of the inhabitants from the peripheries. ey wanted the establishment of a drainage system, better quality drinking water close at hand, cobblestone roads and sidewalks, lighting, the intercession of Municipal Sanitation Service, etc. As for the food supply of strict necessity, few families were deprived of the possibility of getting milk, sugar, bread, however the quantity of meat being quite small. e inhabitants of the peripheries spent little on electricity and travelled little by tram, and. ose who inhabited the outskirts reported that they felt the distances they traveled to reach the church, the doctor, the place of work, the tram station or the public bath, were, in general, normal.