Cultura Precucuteni în Transilvania | Precucuteni Culture in Transylvania

Home » Apariții | Issues » Analele Banatului S. N. XXIV 2016 » Cultura Precucuteni în Transilvania | Precucuteni Culture in Transylvania

Gheorghe Lazarovici, Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici
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In this paper we have syntactical and analytical investigated one part of the published Precucuteni materials discovered in Transylvania. Our aim was to establish if they represent local material or imports. We have made a database for data and information named Precucuteni, where we have introduced all the published data. We have established codes especially for decoration, not for the shapes of pots, while most of the material is very much fragmentary. We developed our code system starting with the one made by Z. Maxim in 1999, but we have enlarge it. We have also analyzed materials from Moldova, ascribed to early Precucuteni phase (Traian – Dealul Viei, Izvoare) as well as the new discoveries from Baia (Precucuteni IB).

Today in Transylvania there are about 38–40 sites with Precucuteni materials (some not very sure). Our analyze underlined once again that SE of Transylvania was involved in the formation area of this culture. Based on our analyze (motives used for decoration; not shapes of pottery) we have divided Precucuteni discoveries in Precucuteni IA, IB, IC. In the first stage Precucuteni IA (table 1C, red mark) there are several south influences, Boian Bolintineanu and Giuleşti (green, fig. 1A), that have an important role for the born of Precucuteni culture. Even in stage Precucuteni IB there are still southern influences, Bolintineanu, Vădastra and Giuleşti (table 2.1, light green mark). For some cases there some doubts related with small sounds.

We also analyzed some materials ascribed to linear pottery culture, associated with Precucuteni materials (Olteni B; and in other sites in Transylvania). Some specialists believed that this civilization has a role in the born of Precucuteni culture too; but based on our analyze we consider that linear pottery culture materials represent only imports, suggesting contacts between different communities and they do not play a role in the genesis of Precucuteni culture. Precucuteni discoveries from western Transylvania can be ascribed to Precucuteni I (Mintia, Lumea Nouă; other discoveries namely those of Turdaş from Z. Torma collection do not have any archaeological context); only one fragment discovered at Lumea Nouă can be ascribed to Precucuteni II. The cup fragment discovered at Ţaga, between the remains of the banquet found in pit Gr. 28 (Zau culture, phase III), is characteristic for late Precucuteni I phase (Precucuteni IC).

Based on our analyses we consider that in Transylvania, as well as in Moldova, during Precucuteni II there are new southern impulses. It is possible that these impulses mark a new Boian migration in Transylvania, at a post Giuleşti level, as is suggest by discoveries from Caşolţ, Feldioara, Leţ, Turia a.s.o.

There are few objects related with plastic art that can be ascribed to Precucuteni culture (idols from Olteni – Cariera de Nisip). A small altar discovered at Iclod has analogies at Traian – Dealul Viei.

As a conclusion, based on the analyzed materials, we consider that in Transylvania it is a local evolution of Precucuteni I phase, with several southern elements. Precucuteni imports in Turdaş II–III and Foeni milieu in Transylvania suggest a possible parallelism between Precucuteni IB and Precucuteni II of Moldova (those named by D. Monah in relation with Poduri house L36 with the 2 cult complexes). In Transylvania there are not typical discoveries related with Precucuteni II, except 2 sherds that indicate imports.

Based on the new radiocarbon data and reinterpretation of some older ones, we believe that the beginning of Precucuteni I in Transylvania is related with 4700 BC, at the same chronological level with Turdaş II and the end of Vinča C3.

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